Thermocompression die bonding or die attach uses no adhesives to join the die and the package. Instead, large amounts of heat and force are applied to the die to form a metallic bond with the substrate. Thermocompression is used regularly in flip-chip applications where bumps on the surface of a chip are bonded to a substrate with corresponding pads. The contact points, which are usually in the form of metallic bumps, are forced against their opposing pads to form a bond, and a second metallic bond is formed where the bond comes into contact with the package metallization. This technique typically requires the use of heat as high as 350° to 400°C, and forces of as much as 100 g/bump.